Try Princess Diana’s Preppy Statement-Pant Look

PRINCESS DIANA is burned into our collective memories as glamorous and begowned—who can forget the black, off-the-shoulder Victor Edelstein dress she wore to twirl with John Travolta at a Reagan-era state dinner? But, as a source of style inspiration for us commoners, dressed-down, off-duty Di endures far more accessibly. “Her daywear was more affordable and easily imitated,” said Isabella Coraca, assistant curator at Historic Royal Palaces, the charity behind the current Kensington Palace exhibit, “Diana: Her Fashion Story.”


Houston’s Menil Collection Will Open a New Drawing Institute In November

Houston’s Menil Collection Will Open a New Drawing Institute In November
Photo: Giulio Ghirardi for WSJ. Magazine

HOUSTON’S Menil Collection possesses a total of 17,000 paintings, drawings, sculptures, objects and prints. Built on the collection amassed over several decades by the museum’s founder, oil heiress Dominique de Menil, and her husband, John de Menil, the museum’s holdings range from Mayan ceramics to medieval reliquaries to Magritte paintings. In one gallery of the main Renzo Piano–designed building stands a 9-foot-tall wooden Oceanic percussion instrument, carved over a hundred years ago. In another hangs Cy Twombly’s 33-foot-long Treatise on the Veil (Second Version), one of his largest canvases, which required 15 people to unroll and install. There’s a reason the de Menils have been called the Medicis of modern art.

DYNAMIC DUO Dominique and John de Menil in 1965 at an exhibition at Houston’s University of St. Thomas.
DYNAMIC DUO Dominique and John de Menil in 1965 at an exhibition at Houston’s University of St. Thomas. Photo: Hickey-Robertson, Courtesy of the Menil Archives, the Menil Collection, Houston

Yet, according to William Middleton, author of the recent biography Double Vision: The Unerring Eye of Art World Avatars Dominique and John de Menil, when Dominique was asked which one of all these works she would save from a fire, she selected a simple Piet Mondrian illustration that the Dutch artist had scribbled on an envelope. It was, she said, a perfect example of thought and proportion, a window into the process of creating a masterful work of art.

Drawings were always an important subset of the de Menils’ collection—partly because the couple were taken with each individual work they acquired and partly because, pragmatically, drawings were more affordable than paintings and sculptures. Although the Menil has spent $8 million on drawings since 2015, the bulk of the collection came from the de Menils. That particular area of the couple’s interest is finally being honored with the 30,000-square-foot Menil Drawing Institute, the latest addition to the museum’s 30-acre campus, opening November 3. Designed by the L.A. architectural firm Johnston Marklee, the institute will be one of the only free-standing facilities in the United States devoted to drawing as a medium, with space for exhibition, conservation, study and storage.

Though there is some evidence that Dominique was considering creating a drawing institute just before she died in 1997, the building was conceived in earnest in 2009, when David Chipperfield Architects was commissioned to create a master site plan for the Menil. Several trustees—including Janie C. Lee and Louisa Stude Sarofim, who have each committed to giving the Menil 55 drawings from their private collections—championed the project. In 2012, Johnston Marklee was chosen to design the Drawing Institute, and the groundbreaking took place three years later. (Chipperfield also vied to design the building, making the selection of the lesser-known firm something of an upset win.)

LIGHT SHOW A gallery in the Menil Collection’s main building reinstalled with African sculpture.
LIGHT SHOW A gallery in the Menil Collection’s main building reinstalled with African sculpture. Photo: Giulio Ghirardi for WSJ. Magazine

Dominique’s interest in the Mondrian sketch had to do with the role it played in creating a larger and more significant work. Yet thinking of drawing exclusively as a stepping stone is “a misconception,” says Rebecca Rabinow, the Menil’s new director, who arrived two years ago from New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art. “For many artists, historically, drawing was an end in and of itself. To have an entire building devoted to [drawing] says something to the general public.”

To help make the case, museum principals looked to Jasper Johns, whose drawings will be the subject of the institute’s inaugural exhibition, The Condition of Being Here. The Menil has a long and deep relationship with the artist. Dominique and John de Menil collected his works, and the museum has become one of the largest holders of Johns drawings in the world. Next month the Menil will publish the six-volume catalogue raisonné of Johns’s drawings. Johns also happens to have a highly specific relationship with the medium. “In many cases, he makes drawings after the completion of a related painting,” says the show’s organizing curator, Kelly Montana. “They’re almost a form of study that comes after the work, a form of experimentation.” This approach, she says, “breaks down all of those attendant assumptions” about drawing.

“They’re incredibly beautiful works,” Montana adds. “They are luscious surfaces—the ink just pools and spills; lines bleed into each other. [They] show that drawing is joyful and pleasurable.”

SHADOW PLAY The Menil Collection’s new Menil Drawing Institute, designed by Los Angeles firm Johnston Marklee.
SHADOW PLAY The Menil Collection’s new Menil Drawing Institute, designed by Los Angeles firm Johnston Marklee. Photo: Giulio Ghirardi for WSJ. Magazine

BOTH FRENCH by birth, Dominique and John de Menil began collecting in the 1930s, acquiring their first works when they were newlyweds and still living in Europe. Among their early commissions was a portrait of Dominique by German surrealist Max Ernst. (Today the Menil is one of the world’s most important surrealism repositories and holds more Ernst works than almost any other museum.) The couple eventually expanded their approach to include a wide selection of genres, from Paleolithic bone carvings to Byzantine artifacts to pop-art paintings. Their approach was decidedly eclectic. “There’s a huge range to the collection,” says Middleton. “Encyclopedic museums are about continents of art. The Menil is about archipelagos.”

Middleton believes that the de Menils would not have collected art so intensively if they hadn’t ended up in Houston, in the early 1940s. After fleeing the Second World War, the couple had no intention of bowing to the conventions of their new neighbors. The de Menils were outsiders but also instant oil royalty. Dominique’s father, Conrad Schlumberger , devised a way to detect oil via an electric apparatus, and by the time the de Menils arrived in Houston—where the Schlumberger Limited company had moved its headquarters from Paris in 1940—the firm reportedly electronically logged about 70 percent of the world’s wells. John, who eventually became the chair of Schlumberger Limited’s board, devised the company’s slogan: “Wherever the drill goes, Schlumberger goes.”

The “leaves” of Renzo Piano’s “light platform” are designed to modulate the influx of natural light.
The “leaves” of Renzo Piano’s “light platform” are designed to modulate the influx of natural light. Photo: Giulio Ghirardi for WSJ. Magazine

The de Menils were determined to elevate the cultural landscape of their adopted city. They had their work cut out for them: At the time, the Houston Symphony shared performance space with the local rodeo and livestock show; one especially idiosyncratic program combined a classical concert with a wrestling match, in which a wrestler jumped onstage and conducted the orchestra. But the de Menils also embraced aspects of Texas culture, which they shared with visiting artists and luminaries. John once took René Magritte out to buy a cowboy hat; he also brought Andy Warhol shopping at a local saddlery company.

Houston’s relative lack of a sophisticated art scene—especially compared to those of New York and Paris, where the de Menils also maintained residences—lent added purpose to the couple’s artistic acquisitions. “They committed to the city; they saw it as a civil obligation,” says Middleton. At first, some of the de Menils’ friends and colleagues dismissed their efforts; one New Yorker they knew scorned Houston as a cultural desert. “It’s in the desert that miracles happen,” John elegantly retorted.

In 1948, the couple commissioned architect Philip Johnson, then just launching his career, to build them a 5,600-square-foot home in Houston’s elite River Oaks neighborhood. Finished in 1951, the stark, flat-roofed International Style house was unusual for Houston. Erected amid a sea of quaint antebellum-style houses, the home shocked many in the city. Yet the de Menils were immensely pleased with their revolutionary new residence, which, much to Johnson’s modernist chagrin, was decorated by American designer and couturier Charles James, who applied felt to its walls and brought in sensuous 19th-century furnishings. The structural elements Johnson put in place, including glass-walled atriums, a single-floor plan and the strong use of natural light, became signature features that the Menil museum buildings would incorporate in the decades to come.

Renzo Piano’s 1987 main building for the Menil.
Renzo Piano’s 1987 main building for the Menil. Photo: Giulio Ghirardi for WSJ. Magazine

For years, the couple exhibited works from their collection at local Houston institutions, but in 1980, Dominique began interviewing architects to create a Menil museum. (John died in 1973.) At the urging of the director of Paris’s Centre Pompidou, Pontus Hulten, she reluctantly met with Italian architect Renzo Piano. Like Johnson, Piano was an emerging talent at the time of their meeting, and he had just co-designed the Centre Pompidou with Richard Rogers and Gianfranco Franchini. Dominique disliked the Pompidou and told Piano so. She felt it was too splashy and distracted from the art inside. Piano got the job, though—his first commission in the U.S. Dominique made it clear that she would be intimately involved in the process and that her vision was exacting. As Piano later recounted to Middleton, she told the architect, over a celebratory lunch, “Welcome to hell!”

The 100,000-square-foot Menil Collection, set in a residential neighborhood a couple of miles from the de Menils’ home, officially opened on June 4, 1987. It was almost the antithesis of the Centre Pompidou: low slung, spare and understated. Piano referenced the de Menils’ Johnson-designed residence, similarly infusing the museum with natural light via a ceiling that he called a “light platform”—a series of skylights with an underlayer of “leaves” that temper the brightness. The New York Times proclaimed the building “just perfect,” and Philip Johnson professed his “natural and despicable jealousy.” It was seen as a purist, accessible celebration of art, without the commercial trappings: no bookstore, gift shop or cafe inside. (“No boutiques and no blockbusters,” Dominique had instructed.)

A courtyard at the Menil Drawing Institute.
A courtyard at the Menil Drawing Institute. Photo: Giulio Ghirardi for WSJ. Magazine

Over the past three decades, the Menil campus has expanded to include a Piano-designed Cy Twombly gallery, the Rothko Chapel, a Dan Flavin installation at Richmond Hall and a Byzantine fresco chapel. There is also now a Bistro Menil and a Menil bookstore, but both are discreetly stashed away in chic bungalows behind the main building.

The Menil Drawing Institute stands at the heart of the Menil plot, and Johnston Marklee partners Sharon Johnston and Mark Lee studied the surrounding structures for guidance. “We were thinking about the Drawing Institute as being a part of that family of buildings,” says Lee. Adds Johnston: “We hoped that when [it] was done, that you wouldn’t be sure if it came before Renzo’s building or after it, that it would feel suspended in time.” Their project was akin, they say, to a conversation among the generations of architects who have worked on or will someday work on Menil projects. “It’s like a chess game,” Lee says. “Renzo made his move. We made our move. We’re curious what the next architects will do.”

He and Johnston also say that their design was informed by the nature of drawing. The ceiling of the main foyer resembles origami; the building itself has what Lee calls “domestic” proportions, to suit smaller drawn works. Made of steel, cedar and concrete, the institute shares the basic Menil elements but required many technical interventions. For example, the natural light had to be diffused to keep the drawings from fading. “The mark of the Menil is top-lit galleries,” says Johnston, who explains that such a feature could not be replicated in the Drawing Institute. The architects subdued the harshness of the Texas sun with steel canopies around the entrance; light filters in via three courtyards and strategically placed windows.

Another view of the Piano building.
Another view of the Piano building. Photo: Giulio Ghirardi for WSJ. Magazine

Houston’s dense humidity also had to be tamed inside the building, as even a hint of dampness could pucker delicate paper. Plus, there were storms to consider. During Hurricane Harvey last year, the Menil buildings did not flood, but Rabinow and the institute architects were taking no chances. They installed a state-of-the-art anti-flooding system. The room where the drawings are stored is suspended in a sort of basin; any water that seeps in drains there. Powerful, water-activated floodgates protect the storage-space entrances. “This area does not flood,” says Rabinow.

The opening of the Drawing Institute was delayed for a year as further adjustments were made. “We could have rushed it,” Rabinow says, surveying a sun-bathed atrium courtyard, filled with young magnolia trees and white rocks. “But we’re in it for the long run, and I wanted this building to be as close to perfect as possible. I have not one regret about delaying. When I walk in here now, my heart sings.”

RABINOW HAS ALSO been overseeing a major renovation of the main Piano building, which reopened on September 22 after a seven-month closure. It all began innocuously enough, Rabinow says, when she was informed that the main building’s fire sensors needed to be replaced. “But to do that, you have to remove the art from the rooms,” Rabinow explains. “If you’re going to take the art out of the rooms, then that was an opportunity, at long last, to refinish our floors. If you’re going to refinish the floors properly, you have to take out the non-load-bearing walls. And that opened up all of these possibilities.” For the reopening exhibitions, curators chose to display over 750 works, all culled from the museum’s permanent holdings and many of which had never before been exhibited. “What began as simply a construction challenge ended up being a way of really doing a deep dive into the collection,” says Rabinow.

A courtyard at the Drawing Institute.
A courtyard at the Drawing Institute. Photo: Giulio Ghirardi for WSJ. Magazine

Several of the newly shown works speak to the de Menils’ history of activism. If Dominique and John experienced aesthetic culture shock when they first arrived in Texas, they also found themselves face to face with the reality of living in the segregated American South. Appalled by the racism they witnessed, they became outspoken human- and civil rights advocates. The de Menils believed that their position came with responsibility. “What we do with our power—our overwhelming power—is…very important indeed,” John wrote to a friend in 1964.

Their activism took many forms: John gave financial support to African-American political candidates and to progressive school board candidates who worked toward the elimination of segregation. Beginning in 1967, he helped pay the legal fees of the TSU Five—a group of African-American students from Texas Southern University who were falsely accused of starting a riot. The de Menils helped launch the political career of the late Mickey Leland, a black activist who became a six-term congressman. (“I really loved him,” Leland once said of John. “He was a feisty guy, he didn’t give a damn for the establishment.”)

The de Menils remained unrelenting in their support of civil rights causes, and their worldview was reflected in their art collection. In 1960, they initiated a still-ongoing project titled The Image of the Black in Western Art, and about 25 percent of the ancient art in the Menil’s permanent holdings now consists of African works and works depicting black figures. As a gift to the city of Houston, the de Menils helped buy a 1967 Broken Obelisk sculpture by Barnett Newman, for installation near City Hall—with the stipulation that it be dedicated to Martin Luther King Jr. When the city declined to honor the dedication, the couple bought the piece outright and installed it in the middle of the Rothko Chapel’s reflecting pool.

OPENING ANGLE Steel canopies shield the interiors of the Menil Drawing Institute from the Houston sun.
OPENING ANGLE Steel canopies shield the interiors of the Menil Drawing Institute from the Houston sun. Photo: Giulio Ghirardi for WSJ. Magazine

The de Menils also acquired important modern works by black artists, some of which are now showcased in the renovated main building. Middle Passage, a large 1970 painting by Guyana-born British artist Frank Bowling, has been given pride of place in the museum’s foyer; this is the first time the Menil has exhibited it. Two large 1971 painted canvas works by American artist Joe Overstreet—Ancestral God and Free Direction—now hang in the same gallery as Treatise on the Veil (Second Version). “Overstreet has very much been overlooked,” says Menil senior curator Michelle White. “I am intentionally putting him alongside Twombly as a way of making a statement about his importance in the history of painting.” Newly purchased works by contemporary African-American artist Leslie Hewitt, including her 2012 sculptural piece Untitled (Where Paths Meet, Turn Away, Then Align Again), also have a solo showing in one of the main building’s galleries.

The front-and-center placement of Middle Passage, says Rabinow, “makes a big statement about what the Menil is doing.” She is looking forward to using the Menil’s galleries to prompt difficult conversations. Doing so, she says, honors the museum’s roots and directives. “There are going to be spaces where we address the very complicated moments of the meeting of cultures; we have a legacy of doing that,” she says. “And that’s going back to the de Menils’ vision, and their desire for social justice.” •

Alec Baldwin Has Some Questions

The ‘30 Rock’ star is hosting ‘The Alec Baldwin Show’ on ABC.
The ‘30 Rock’ star is hosting ‘The Alec Baldwin Show’ on ABC. Photo: Vera Anderson/WireImage/Getty Images

Nora Ephron once wrote that there were times, when interviewing people, when she wanted to say: “Me! Me! Me! Enough about you. What about me?”

For Alec Baldwin, it’s more or less the inverse. In 2011, he started a podcast with WNYC, “Here’s the Thing,” so he could interview people the way he wanted to be interviewed—“where they feel comfortable and there’s no judgment,” he says.

“And eventually,” he adds, “when you don’t appear to be manipulating them and trying to take something from them, they give it to you anyway. If you don’t pressure them, they’re much more comfortable and amenable.”

Robert De Niro and Mr. Baldwin on ‘The Alec Baldwin Show.’
Robert De Niro and Mr. Baldwin on ‘The Alec Baldwin Show.’ Photo: Heidi Gutman/ABC

Now ABC is mining that format for television. On “The Alec Baldwin Show,” starting Sunday, Mr. Baldwin will be in conversation with boldface names like Robert De Niro, Kim Kardashian West, Chris Christie and the Who’s Roger Daltrey.

Rob Mills, the network’s senior vice president for alternate series, specials and late night, likens the new series to ABC hits like “Dancing With the Stars” or even the BBC’s “The Great British Bake Off”: easy-to-watch TV with a “deceptively simple premise.”

“Whether it’s things like ‘Shark Tank’ or Alec’s show or ‘Dancing With the Stars’ and ‘American Idol’ and ‘The Bachelor,’” he says, “they’re all kind of, sort of, one-line premises that actually run deeper than what you’re seeing in the promo.”

Mr. Baldwin won an Emmy last year for his President Trump cameos on “Saturday Night Live,” and he isn’t opposed to political debate on his show. “With people that I don’t have any agreement with politically, it depends on: Can we have a good conversation?” he says.

“The Alec Baldwin Show” airs Sunday, 10 p.m. ET, on ABC.

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Your Rock-Solid Case for Flying Business Class for Work

Imagine a corporate policy where the C-suite executive who only flies a couple of times a year rides in coach and the sales and engineering road warriors get the first-class and business-class tickets.

Some companies are starting to make changes in that direction to reduce what’s known as traveler friction—the burnout that saps productivity and leads to low morale and job turnover.


Hunting in Tanzania the Way Our Earliest Ancestors Did

Hunting in Tanzania the Way Our Earliest Ancestors Did
Illustration: DAVID DORAN

JUST AFTER DAWN, on the second day of searching for the Hadza hunters, we found them camped under a rock overhang. The tableau looked like a scene from the ancient human past. A few men and adolescent boys were sitting around a fire, cutting meat from a freshly skinned impala. Women and infants emerged from temporary huts made of leaves. Small yellow dogs, covered in bite wounds, trotted forward to sniff us.

This roaming band of Hadza hunter-gatherers, in northern Tanzania, was now accustomed to visits from small tour groups like ours—pale-faced strangers with hats, cameras and water bottles—but our motives remained mysterious to them. According to our guide, a dreadlocked entrepreneur from the neighboring Datoga tribe, the Hadza didn’t understand why we wanted to see such everyday sights as an early morning monkey hunt.

“Imagine if tourists were coming to your house and watching you go to the supermarket,” he said. “You would wonder what they were looking at.” The way in which we looked at the Hadza was shaped by what we’d heard about their DNA. Some of the earliest Homo sapiens evolved in this part of Africa, and the Hadza, according to some genetic researchers, are their direct descendants. The way they live, roaming the land, hunting and gathering, sheltering under rocks, is how our earliest ancestors existed 200,000 years ago.

The headman was a strikingly handsome, muscular man, wearing a beaded antelope hide tied over one shoulder, a pair of denim shorts and tire-tread sandals. He smiled, showing perfect teeth, and shook our hands gently. Then he passed me a bow decorated with baboon fur, and an arrow fletched with guinea fowl feathers. He pointed to a huge baobab tree about 30 yards away.

I drew back the bow with some difficulty. The tree must have been 15 feet wide, but I still managed to miss it. The teenage boys were incredulous. Our guide told us they had been shooting bows and arrows from the age of two and could drop small, fast birds out of the sky.

The baobab had short sticks jammed into its trunk, forming a perilous ladder that the Hadza climbed to raid beehives. They loved eating honey, and traded the surplus for metal arrowheads, metal knives, beads, sandals, clothes, tobacco and marijuana. Tour-group companies compensated them for receiving visitors like us, and they spent the money on the same things. The Hadza tourism industry has been criticized for compromising their cultural purity, but this small tribe faces much graver threats. It has lost 90% of its land in recent years, and cattle encroachment is starving out the wild animals on what’s left. This was one of the last bands still hunting and gathering all its food. They spoke softly among themselves in a click language—a linguistic isolate, unrelated to any living languages—although some of the men had learned enough Swahili to interact with the outside world.

The headman whistled for the dogs. This meant they were going after baboons, which upset a woman in our party. “Do you think I can control them?” said the guide gently. “Do you think if the dogs tree a baboon, the men are not going to kill it because of us? This is how they eat and feed their families.”

They set off walking at top speed across the dusty broken ground with a big red sun slanting through the acacia trees. The dogs started running, the hunters sprinted after them, and I struggled to keep up, ducking under branches, trying not to snag the baboon-furred bow on the thorns.

I struggled to keep up, trying not to snag the bow on the thorns.

The baboons escaped, after inflicting some fresh bite wounds on the dogs. Then the teenagers killed a couple of squirrels, and the headman spotted a bush baby—a small, cute, large-eye primate—in the top of a tree. He drew back his bow, and shot an arrow into its solar plexus. The animal tried to pull out the arrow with one hand while clinging to a branch with the other. Another arrow pierced it, and five more in quick succession. It fell down through the branches, still alive, and the headman dashed its head against a rock.

A man spun an arrow shaft on a flat piece of wood, sliding his palms back and forth. A thin coil of smoke appeared, then a tiny glowing coal nestled in dung. The man blew the coal into flame, built a fire, and laid the bush baby and the squirrels on top of it. When the fur was blackened, he snatched the carcasses off, sliced them down the middle, threw the guts to the dogs, and put them back on the fire. When the bush baby was medium-rare, the cook tore off one of its arms and handed it to me. It seemed rude, and somehow inhuman, to refuse. This was how we lived for the vast majority of our history. The bush baby was surprisingly tasty, not unlike the dark meat on a scrawny chicken, or so I thought while I was eating it. Three hours later, there was a rank, stubborn, gamy taste in my mouth, and no amount of beer-rinsing or tooth-brushing would get rid of it.

Hunting in Tanzania the Way Our Earliest Ancestors Did

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Danny Meyer Wants to Help You Get Your Favorite Meal

New York restaurateur and Shake Shack founder Danny Meyer is moving into the e-commerce business.

Enlightened Hospitality Investments LP, the $220 million private-equity fund that Mr. Meyer helped start, has invested $15 million in Goldbelly, a New York-based company that specializes in shipping favorite food items from restaurants, bakeries and other purveyors.


‘Mastering the Market Cycle’ Review: The Dangers of Optimism

Amid so much purportedly expert investment advice, it is worth asking who the experts themselves listen to. One answer, undoubtedly, is Howard Marks, among the world’s most successful investment managers as well as an intellectual leader of the profession. His client memos are widely distributed among investment professionals. “When I see memos from Howard Marks in my mail,” Warren Buffett has said, “they’re the first thing I open and read. I always learn something.”

In 2011 Mr. Marks published “The Most Important Thing,”…

High-Octane Cool

Steve McQueen in Peter Yates’s ‘Bullitt’ (1968)
Steve McQueen in Peter Yates’s ‘Bullitt’ (1968) Photo: Silver Screen Collection/Getty Images

Fifty years ago this month, “Bullitt” opened in the U.S. and became one of the most financially successful thrillers of all time, costing a mere $5.5 million and reaping a gross of $42.3 million—more than $300 million today—at the domestic box office. This story of a San Francisco detective on the trail of ruthless hit men marked the apotheosis of Steve McQueen as an action star. In celebration of the anniversary, “Bullitt” is running in selected theaters across the U.S. this Tuesday.

Still relishing his one and only Oscar nomination, for his role in “The Sand Pebbles,” and just four months after appearing in “The Thomas Crown Affair,” McQueen enjoyed a position of immense power. His company, Solar Productions, controlled “Bullitt” from start to finish, despite the film’s being financed by Warner Brothers/Seven Arts. McQueen himself selected British director Peter Yates, given his skill at staging the car chase in “Robbery” the previous year. And it was McQueen who spent interminable preparatory sessions at a track north of San Francisco, racing alongside and against Bill Hickman, a brilliant stunt driver whose Magnum Dodge Charger 440 sought to outrun police lieutenant Frank Bullitt’s Ford Mustang 390 GT in the now legendary pursuit through San Francisco. The 10-minute sequence took three weeks to record, with eight cameras involved (one operated by director Yates, hidden inside McQueen’s Mustang).

What distinguished McQueen from other action stars before and since? His idol was Humphrey Bogart, but such major stars traditionally were forbidden from performing risky stunts. McQueen, however, almost relished putting himself in harm’s way. Warners was appalled by the prospect of a live car chase in heavily populated San Francisco and by the scene when McQueen’s detective throws himself beneath the wheels of a taxiing Boeing 747 at San Francisco International Airport. Only Jackie Chan and, more recently, Tom Cruise have inherited this flair and sangfroid.

Steve McQueen in ‘Bullitt’ (1968)
Steve McQueen in ‘Bullitt’ (1968) Photo: Everett Collection

His contemporary Clint Eastwood (both born in 1930) was as laconic as McQueen, without exuding quite the same charismatic appeal to young and old alike. Then came the generation of Arnold Schwarzenegger and Sylvester Stallone, each trumpeting the sex appeal of a muscular physique. Today actors like Tom Hardy and Dwayne Johnson seek to fill the shoes of a McQueen, who had suffered a brutal death from cancer at just 50 years of age.

You always felt that McQueen was the real deal, a rebel of flesh and blood with the carefree courage of an auto racer and the rumpled tenderness of a loner who had survived reform school and run away to join the merchant navy. “I’m not an actor, I’m a reactor,” he told Yates during the filming of “Bullitt,” and yet his early training at the Actors Studio nurtured some of his most beguiling traits—the defiant gaze that could change in an instant to a clown’s split grin, or his habit of looking down as he listens and then raising his blue-eyed glare like a searchlight to quell even such a suave adversary as Edward G. Robinson in “The Cincinnati Kid.”

McQueen’s talent as a driver onscreen also set him apart from all save perhaps the older Paul Newman. McQueen could outrun the Nazis on a motorcycle in “The Great Escape,” and he could drive a Porsche 917 alongside Jacky Ickx and Jo Siffert for the 24-hour race in “Le Mans.” He could ride a horse with aplomb and draw a six-gun as fast as any cowboy star (notably in “Nevada Smith” and “The Magnificent Seven”).

A scene from ‘Bullitt’; the film, directed by Peter Yates, still has wheels, thanks to its star’s charisma and the snarling vigor of its car chase.
A scene from ‘Bullitt’; the film, directed by Peter Yates, still has wheels, thanks to its star’s charisma and the snarling vigor of its car chase. Photo: Everett Collection

“Bullitt” was made in 1968, yet far from Vietnam and even from the spirit of nearby Haight-Ashbury. It may seem no more than an above-average gangster movie, but its iconic status continues to resonate today due in part to the snarling vigor of that car chase and in even larger measure to the abiding sense of a Steve McQueen at the top of his game, committed to adding a razor-sharp realism to every sequence. The action features numerous city landmarks, from San Francisco General Hospital to Grace Cathedral and the Mark Hopkins Hotel. “Bullitt” remains a benchmark in the crime-movie genre, and influenced such future classics as “The French Connection,” “Heat,” and especially the Jason Bourne franchise.

In “Bullitt” McQueen found himself on the side of justice for once, but not quite of the law, refusing to kowtow to ruthless superiors like Robert Vaughn’s district attorney. He remained, until the very end of his career, the outsider, as exemplified by “Junior Bonner,” “Tom Horn” and “The Hunter.” He appeared casual, even shy, but never self-effacing; and when the chips were, literally, down in a film like “The Cincinnati Kid,” McQueen’s nerve never faltered. He lived, like the characters he often played, with a ferocious desire for liberty that no other action star could match and to which even today’s Bond, Daniel Craig, can only aspire. And in “Bullitt” he was the quintessence of cool.

Mr. Cowie has written numerous books on filmmakers, including Orson Welles, Ingmar Bergman, Akira Kurosawa and Francis Ford Coppola.

Has Fashion’s Licensing of Art Gone Too Far?

GRATEFUL DEAD CUFFLINKS. Andy Warhol socks. Jean-Michel Basquiat T-shirts. Lately my email inbox brims with press releases from fashion companies pitching these items. These are not, of course, the handiwork of the artists themselves (R.I.P. Jerry, Andy and Jean-Michel) but the result of licensing partnerships struck between a brand (Tateosian, Happy Socks and Diamond Supply Co., respectively) and an estate, foundation or company.

These types of deals have long been negotiated for mass merchandise, often kid’s items emblazoned…